Laos Neutrality Agreement
Kennedy and Khrushchev agree on the neutrality of Laos Burma, Cambodia, Canada, the People`s Republic of China, the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, France, India, Poland, the Republic of Vietnam, Thailand, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States signed a declaration that came into force on July 23, 1962, along with the declaration of neutrality of the Royal Government of Laos on July 9, 1962, as an international agreement on the day of its signing.  Yet the American president did not want to lose Laos at the price of the Communists. Kennedy was willing to accept Laos` neutrality as a solution. Finally, a conference of the 14 nations was to be convened in Geneva and, in July 1962, an agreement was signed, declaring Laos neutral. This was for the time being concerned with the situation in Laos, but both the Communists and the United States soon ignored the declared neutrality of the territory. 45. 6 U.S. Contracts 81; T.I.A.S., 3170; 209 UN Treaty Series 28. While Laos was not a contracting party to the treaty, the treaty protection was effectively granted to Laos in accordance with Article IV, Par. I which authorizes this extension to “any state or territory that the contracting parties can unanimously designate, below … In the protocol accompanying the treaty, the parties unanimously designated Cambodia, Laos and South Vietnam. 9. On 17 May 1961, the USSR presented a draft declaration on the neutrality of Laos (LAOS/DOC/4) and a draft protocol on the withdrawal of foreign troops and military personnel from Laos and on the mandate of the International Control Commission (LAOS/DOC/5).
On 23 May 1961, France submitted a draft declaration by the Royal Lao government and a draft declaration by the other 13 powers in response (LAOS/DOC/7), revised on 27 July 1961 (LAOS/DOC/7/Rev. 1). On 6 June 1961, the French delegation presented a draft control protocol (LAOS/DOC/11). The United States, presented on June 26, 1961. 10 draft articles in addition to the French draft protocol (LAOS/DOC/17). On 13 July 1961, India submitted a draft declaration of neutrality (LAOS/DOC/23) and, the next day, a draft protocol (LAOS/DOC/24). Kennedy faced the choice between two promising strategies: adopting a military solution that most likely called for unilateral intervention by U.S. forces; or to change a major policy change aimed at a ceasefire and the neutralization of Laos. He rejected the military option, although he encouraged an offensive by Phoumis to strengthen his negotiating position. She failed. Kennedy opened his press conference on March 23, 1961 with a lengthy discussion on Laos, calling for an end to hostilities and negotiations leading to a neutralized and independent Laos.